06.03.2021

The Effect of Intensive Treatment of Diabetes on the Development and Progression of Long-Term Complications in Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus

The following persons and institutions participated in the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial Research Group.

Albert Einstein College of Medicine — H. Shamoon, H. Duffy, N. Fleischer, S. Engel, P. Saenger, M. Strelzyn, M. Litwak, J. Wylie-Rosett, A. Farkash, D. Geiger, H. Engel, J. Fleischman, D. Pompi, N. Ginsberg, M. Glover, M. Brisman, E. Walker, A. Thomashunis, and J. Gonzalez; Case Western Reserve University — S. Genuth, E. Brown, W. Dahms, P. Pugsley, L. Mayer, D. Kerr, B. Landau, L. Singerman, T. Rice, M. Novak, S. Smith-Brewer, J. McConnell, D. Drotar, D. Woods, B. Katirgi, M. Litvene, C. Brown, and M. Lusk; Cornell University Medical Center — R. Campbell, M. Lackaye, M. Richardson, B. Levy, S. Chang, M. Hein-Heinemann, S. Barron, L. Astor, D. LeBeck, D. Brillon, B. Diamond, A. Vasilas-Dwoskin, B. Laurenzi, N. Foldi, M. Rubin, T. Flynn, V. Reppucci, C. Heise, and A. Sanchez; Henry Ford Hospital — F. Whitehouse, D. Kruger, D. Kahkonen, J. Fachnie, J. Fisk, J. Carey, M. Cox, B. Ahmad, E. Angus, H. Campbell, D. Fields, M. Croswell, K. Basha, P. Chung, A. Schoenherr, M. Mobley, K. Marchiori, J. Francis, and J. Kelly; International Diabetes Center — D. Etzwiler, P. Callahan, P. Hollander, G. Castle, R. Bergenstal, M. Spencer, J. Nelson, L. Bezecny, C. Roethke, M. Orban, C. Ulrich, L. Gill, K. Morgan, J. Laechelt, F. Taylor, D. Freking, A. Towey, M. Lieppman, S. Rakes, J. Mangum, N. Cooper, and P. Upham; Joslin Diabetes Center — A. Jacobson, S. Crowell, J. Wolfsdorf, R. Beaser, O. Ganda, J. Rosenzweig, C. Stewart, B. Halford, E. Friedlander, D. Tarsy, P. Arrigg, G. Sharuk, S. Shah, G. Wu, J. Cavallerano, R. Poole, P. Silver, R. Cavicchi, D. Fleming, J. Marcus, C. Griffiths, and N. Cappella; Massachusetts General Hospital — D. Nathan, M. Larkin, J. Godine, J. Lynch, D. Norman, C. McKitrick, C. Haggen, L. Delahanty, E. Anderson, P. Lou, C. Taylor, D. Cros, K. Folino, S. Brink, K. Abbott, and K. Sicotte; Mayo Foundation — F. J. Service, A. Schmidt, R. Rizza, B. Zimmerman, W. Schwenk, J. Mortenson, G. Ziegler, A. Lucas, N. Hanson, S. Sellnow, J. Pach, D. Stein, B. Eickhoff, R. Woodwick, R. Tackmann, J. Trautmann, J. Rostvold, T. Link, P. Dyck, J. Daube, R. Colligan, A. Windebank, and J. King; Medical University of South Carolina — J. Colwell, D. Wood, R. Mayfield, J. Picket, M. Chitwood, D. Billings, Y. Dabney, J. Buse, L. King, S. Vale, T. Thompson, B. Bohm, T. Lyons, K. Hermayer, and A. Rice; Northwestern University — M. Molitch, B. Schaefer, C. Johnson, J. Lyons, B. Metzger, B. Cohen, T. Nishida, K. Parque, V. Yusim, M. Moore, L. Jampol, K. Dineen, J. Stahl, L. Richine, D. Weinberg, I. Loose, and M. Kushner; University of British Columbia — A. Morrison, A. Jalbert, H. Tildesley, S. Leung, I. Begg, D. Johnson, S. Lalani, T. Kennedy, and G. Meadows; University of California, San Diego — O. Kolterman, G. Lorenzi, K. Jones, M. Goldbaum, M. Swenson, R. Lyon, M. Giotta, K. Kadlec, R. Reed, L. Kirsch, J. Goodman, S. Cahill, T. Clark, R. Abram, L. Sayner, R. Ochabski, R. Gloria, G. Birchler, J. Grant, B. Grasse, L. Christle, B. Abreu, I. Grant, and R. Heaton; University of Iowa — R. Zeitler, W. Sivitz, M. Bayless, H. Schrott, N. Olson, B. Tindal, L. Snetselaar, D. Mueller, A. Dudler, J. Swartzendruber, R. Hoffman, J. MacIndoe, J. Kramer, T. Weingeist, A. Kimura, E. Stone, T. Grout, C. Fountain, S. Karakas, C. Vogel, P. Montague, D. Keyser, S. Mennen, C. Doggett, G. Rose, K. Devet, and P. Muhle; University of Maryland School of Medicine — A. Kowarski, D. Ostrowski, P. Levin, S. Chalew, J. Hylton, D. Young-Hyman, M. Barlow, R. Mayer, M. Elman, V. Lakhanpal, B. Weiner, M. Millar, S. Blum, W. Buie, and B. Mace; University of Michigan — D. Greene, C. Martin, J. Floyd, F. Dunn, D. Henry, S. Bennett, A. Lasichak, A. Vine, J. Albers, T. Sandford, J. Loftin, M. Stevens, S. Elner, C. Martonyi, F. McIver, S. Stanley, J. Willis, K. Ryan, T. Spiegelberg, S. Nalepa, B. Glasgow, E. Chan, and P. Dotimas; University of Minnesota — J. Bantle, M. Mech, M. Balles, W. Kennedy, M. Khan, W. Knobloch, C. Kwong, L. McKenzie, J. Olson, R. Ramsay, W. Robiner, R. Warhol, A. Genia, G. McDonough, B. McMichael, D. Philiph, L. Ponwith, R. Sahinen, E. Stinson, J. Verness, L. Fimreite, and J. Stein; University of Missouri — D. Goldstein, M. Hall, T. Burns, D. Klachko, J. Giangiacomo, S. Rawlings, L. Aston, J. England, H. Wiedmeyer, M. Daugherty, M. Lightfoot, R. Wilson, R. Wilson, G. Griffing, D. Gardner, R. Conway, K. Blinder, M. Brownlee-Duffeck, N. Palmer, and L. Gash; University of New Mexico School of Medicine — D. Schade, C. Johannes, R. Reidy, J. Bicknell, A. Vogel, D. Drumm, P. Boyle, M. Burge, N. Jones, J. Canady, and D. Nickell; University of Pennsylvania-Children’s Hospital of Pennsylvania — L. Baker, P. Ilves-Corressel, S. Schwartz, S. Braunstein, J. McBride, A. Brucker, L. Rendle, M. Brown, J. Sladky, B. Maschak-Carey, D. Lawley, W. Nyberg, L. Weeney, E. Sandburg, S. Byrd, E. Aguado, N. Mulholland, D. Cahn, M. Suscavage, J. Egler, M. Vaughn-Norton, C. Collins, and H. Mameniskis; University of Pittsburgh — A. Drash, J. Wesche, M. Bratkowski, D. Becker, S. Arslanian, B. Doft, L. Lobes, J. Rinkoff, J. Warnicki, D. Curtin, D. Steinberg, G. Vagstad, C. Ryan, F. Harris, L. Steranchak, J. Arch, K. Kelly, P. Ostroska, M. Guiliani, M. Good, T. Williams, K. Olsen, A. Campbell, C. Shipe, R. Conwit, D. Finegold, and M. Zaucha; University of South Florida — J. Malone, N. Grove, D. McMillan, L. Babione, T. DeClue, P. Pavan, J. Korthals, H. Solc, and A. Mangione; University of Tennessee — A. Kitabchi, L. Taylor, L. Jones, K. Pitts, T. Bertorini, J. Bittle, G. Burghen, J. Fisher, T. Hughes, J. Linn, D. Meyer, W. Murphy, M. Justice, A. Sherman, L. Wright, and L. Murphy; University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center — P. Raskin, S. Strowig, M. Basco, S. Cercone, L. Ramirez, R. Anand, C. Wilson, R. Greenlee, W. Anderson, E. Mendelson, P. Vanacek, J. Howard, C. Ousley, B. Yates, D. Conger, B. Maguire, M. Biggs, B. Newton, and K. Sherill; University of Toronto — B. Zinman, A. Barnie, R. Ehrlich, D. Daneman, K. Perlman, L. Leiter, I. Gottesman, R. Devenyi, C. Mortimer, K. Moffat, A. Gordon, R. Ferguson, K. Camelon, S. Simkins, C. Littlefield, G. Rodin, K. Hartley, J. Kwan, D. Gnanapandithen, S. Rogers, L. Haye, J. Rose, S. Mezei, B. Bunphy, S. Maclean, L. MacKeen, M. Mandelcorn, P. Nellis, L. Ruttan, and D. Wilson-Smith; University of Washington — J. Palmer, J. Ginsberg, I. Hirsch, J. Kinyoun, H. Doerr, R. Mauseth, K. Sweeney, L. Van Ottingham, L. Thomson, C. Greenbaum, L. Sameshima, R. Farkas-Hirsch, G. Rosenbaum, N. Rubner, T. Brown, G. Kraft, J. Broeckel, M. Karlsen, D. Khakpour, M. Ramirez, B. Smit, and L. Mix; University of Western Ontario — J. Dupre, P. Colby, W. Rodger, I. Hramiak, M. Jenner, C. Canny, W. Brown, T. Smith, J. Harth, S. Bondy, S. Beath, S. McCabe, C. Gouchie, K. Blanchard, J. McCallum, S. Jung, and A. Sue-Tang; Vanderbilt University — R. Lorenz, J. Lipps, J. McRae, J. May, M. May, P. Campbell, S. Feman, A. Kilroy, C. Pulliam, D. Schlundt, K. Jannasch, D. Davis, N. Cullen, T. Adkins, M. Snell, K. Virts, and L. Quesenberry; Washington University, St. Louis — J. Santiago, L. Levandoski, N. White, J. McGill, J. Bubb, L. Schmidt, Y. Strasberg, M. Casso, M. Noetzel, R. Olk, I. Boniuk, M. Grand, M. Thomas, D. Williams, G. Nobel, R. Kacizak, E. Ort, J. Dahl, L. Breeding, G. Hoffmeyer, P. Bilyeu, J. Blank, C. Walters, J. Bodnar, P. Rodriguez, M. Erickson, and S. Hedrick; Yale University School of Medicine — W. Tamborlane, J. Ahern, R. Sherwin, P. Gatcomb, K. Stoessel, N. Held, J. Ebersole, I. Scanlon, R. Louard, C. Wildstein, D. Bilodeau, K. Fong, D. Ottaviano, and C. Larson.

Office of the Chairman — O. B. Crofford; Data Coordinating Center — J. Lachin, P. Cleary, D. Thompson, D. Kenny, S. L
an, G. Lan, A. Brenneman, W. Owen, K. Adams, D. Arnold, R. Campanell, N. Loring, P. Scheirer, D. Becker, D. Lamas, C. Dunegan, H. Veeramachaneni, C. Williams, and S. Abdul-Baaqiy; Consultants — A. Kassoff, K. Adams, I. Grant, R. Heaton, J. Dorman, R. Spielman, and R. Klein; National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases Program Office — C. Siebert and R. Silverman; Central Units: Central Autonomic Coding Unit (Southern Illinois University) — M. Pfeifer, M. Schumer, M. Moran, and J. Farquhar; Central Backup HbA1c Laboratory (University of Missouri) — J. England, H. Wiedmeyer, and C. Rohlfing; Central Fundus Photograph Reading Center (University of Wisconsin) — M. Davis, L. Hubbard, Y. Magli, S. Thomas, J. Onofrey, K. Jensen, R. Brothers, S. Ansay, J. Armstrong, D. Badal, M. Vanderhoof-Young, B. Esser, P. Geithman, D. Hurlburt, J. Reimers, K. Kewley, and K. Miner; Central Biochemistry Laboratory (University of Minnesota) — M. Steffes and J. Bucksa; Central Neurobehavioral Coding Unit (Western Psychiatric Institute and Clinic) — C. Ryan, R. Catanzaro, A. Lukes, G. Bagovich, and T. Woodfill; Central ECG Reading Unit (University of Minnesota) — R. Crow, J. Hughlett, and C. Swanson; Central Nutrition Coding Unit (University of Minnesota) — I. Buzzard, M. Stevens, B. Sielaff, B. Pickering, and S. Schakel; Economic Evaluation Unit — W. Herman (chairman), E. Dasbach, T. Songer, and G. Janes; Mortality and Morbidity Committee: L. Deeb, R. Ewart, and T. Orchard; Data, Safety, and Quality Review Group: C. Clark (chairman), G. Cutter, M. Davis, D. DeMets, F. Ferris, C. Furberg, E. Horton, J. Keen, D. Lockwood, P. Palmberg, B. Rourke, and A. Tsiatis; Policy Advisory Group: R. Levy (chairman), R. Frank, J. Grizzle, A. Rubenstein, J. Schneider, and J. Skyler; Writing Team: D.M. Nathan (chairman), S. Genuth, J. Lachin, P. Cleary, O. Crofford, M. Davis, L. Rand, and C. Siebert.

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