What kind of doctor does a woman see most often? Few will deny that the gynecologist. Not only the basic function of the reproductive system, such a joyful event as pregnancy, but also less pleasant phenomena leads us to it.
One of them – erosion of the cervix uterus correspondent SHE talked with the gynecologist-endocrinologist of the medical center “Zdravitsa” Kovalenko Irina Alexandrovna.
Tell us, what is erosion of the cervix?
This is the condition of the cervix, in which there is a section on its vaginal part covered with a cylindrical epithelium (mucosa), which should not normally be present. The bright red color of this site allowed using the word “erosion” in the name, but more correctly this disease is called “cervical ectopia”.
What is the incidence rate?
In recent years, the number of women suffering from cervical erosion has increased: it occurs in 40% of the female population, 55% of them are young women under 25 years old. This is due to the early onset of the sexual life of modern girls, the frequent change of sexual partners, the growth of venereal and viral diseases.
What are the manifestations of erosion? Can I diagnose it myself?
Uncomplicated erosions are not clinically visible, complicated by infection or inflammation are manifested in the form of copious secretions from the genital organs, contact bleeding during sexual intercourse. Only a doctor can diagnose erosion of the cervix, as this requires gynecological examination, colposcopy (examination of the cervix under the microscope), analysis of the smear on the flora and oncocytogram. If cervical erosion is detected, it is also necessary to conduct a screening to detect infections: bacteriological cultures, PCR diagnostics.
What are the causes of erosion?
There are multiple factors that contribute to the onset of cervical erosion. First, heredity. Secondly, mechanical and chemical effects on the cervix – trauma during childbirth, abortion, chemical and mechanical contraceptive. Thirdly, hormonal changes – a violation of the menstrual cycle, the early onset of menstruation (up to 11-12 years), early onset of sexual activity, more than 3 pregnancies. An important cause are infections – chlamydia, trichomoniasis, gonorrhea, bacterial vaginosis and a large number of sexual partners. The lowering of general and local immunity also plays a role.
What is the danger of erosion?
Complicated with inflammatory processes and infection of erosion are a risk of development of precancerous processes and cervical cancer. In recent years, more attention has been paid to papillomavirus infection. A clear relationship between this viral disease and cervical cancer has been established (80-100% of patients with cervical cancer are infected with human papillomavirus).
How is cervical erosion treated?
If a diagnosis of cervical erosion is diagnosed at a gynecologist’s appointment, it is necessary to conduct a screening for sexually transmitted infections. And after the examination, and in case of detection (appropriate treatment), the doctor decides on the further tactics of managing the disease.
When treating a small (no more than 1 cm in diameter), uncomplicated erosion, most researchers recommend adhering to the expectant management tactics with a checkup once every six months (with mandatory colposcopy and taking a smear on the flora and oncocytogram). When complications appear in the form of infection, atypical changes revealed in colposcopy, the focus of ectopy (erosion) is removed. In the treatment of erosion, complicated by inflammation, anti-inflammatory therapy is carried out followed by removal of the focus. When working with erosion with atypical changes, a targeted biopsy (histological examination of a piece of cervix uteri) is prescribed. Depending on the histological analysis, the doctor chooses a method of treatment.
What methods are used?
There are several methods for treating cervical erosion. This is chemical coagulation with the use of “Solkovagin”, cryodestruction (with liquid nitrogen), DEK – diathermoelectrocoagulation (treatment with electric current). A radio-wave method, laser coagulation (using a CO-2 laser) is also used. Until recently, DEC was the most common method of treating cervical erosion, but complications such as scar cervical stenosis, bleeding do not allow widespread use of this method of treatment, especially to nulliparous women.
Of modern and effective methods, radio wave treatment of cervical erosion with the help of the Surgitron apparatus should be specially noted. This method is atraumatic and painless. Such complications as scars and stenoses, bleeding, endometriosis, characteristic for other methods of treatment, when using “Surgitron” are absent. The healing process takes place in a short time. In connection with the absence of complications and traumatic factors, such treatment is recommended for nulliparous women.
What is the prevention of the disease?
Regular visit to a gynecologist (2 times a year) allows you to diagnose the pathological changes in the cervix in time, therefore, to prevent the development of cancer. Of great importance is the observance of a culture of sexual behavior: the use of modern methods of contraception, the abandonment of promiscuous sexual life, the prevention of abortion.
How much does erosion treatment cost?
In our center, the cost of treating cervical erosion with Surgutron is 1850 rubles. (before treatment it is necessary to conduct a survey for sexually transmitted infections, the cost of the survey varies from 800 to 2500 rubles). As a rule, one treatment procedure is sufficient for the full recovery of the cervix.