Frozen pregnancy (undeveloped pregnancy, abortion, missed abortion) is one of the types of miscarriage at which the death of an embryo (fetus) without clinical signs of miscarriage, cessation of its development and death at the term of up to 28 weeks. As doctors say, most pregnancy stops at the early stages of pregnancy – in the first trimester, it is during this period is the laying of the main systems and internal organs, and the fetus is most vulnerable to any unfavorable factors.
The head of the reproductive health department of the clinic of the Center for Maternity and Child Health, gynecologist and endocrinologist Tatyana Ovsyannikova said that in the structure of reproductive losses the frequency of this pathology is consistently 10-20% of all the desired pregnancies.
And in the structure of miscarriage, the frequency of frozen pregnancies reaches 45-88,6% of the number of spontaneous abortions in the early stages.
The first reason is you.
One of the important reasons for this coincidence is that doctors call genetic anomalies of fetal development. Pregnancy can stop on such early terms that a woman does not even know about it. As the gynecologist-endocrinologist of the medical center “Dune” Tatyana Botkina explained, if the developmental failure occurred in the first two weeks after conception, then the unsuccessful pregnancy can give only a small delay and slightly more abundant discharge during menstruation. It is believed that nature “culls” the failed variants, preventing the embryo from developing.
Also, the reasons can be covered in violations of the hormonal background of a woman. “Most often this is a deficiency of progesterone – the hormone of pregnancy. If a woman already had a frozen pregnancy, a miscarriage, often there are delays in menstruation, or a male-type hairworm is observed, then she needs to be especially careful in planning, “warns Tatyana Ovsyannikova.
The next cause of frozen pregnancy, not only in the early, but also in the late term, are all kinds of infections. Influenza (therefore, it is not recommended for pregnant women to go to theaters and movies), toxoplasmosis (not recommended cleaning the cat to avoid infection), cytomegalovirus. Mycoplasmas and ureaplasmas (in high titres), herpes, chlamydia and other sexual infections also carry a threat. It is very dangerous, according to doctors, not to exacerbate existing infectious diseases, but to infect them during pregnancy (especially with chickenpox or rubella – the fetus can survive, but infections will cause malformations).
Negative factors can be: age to 18 and after 35 years, chronic stress and frequent emotional overstrain, as well as taking certain medications (for example, antidepressants, antibiotics), drinking alcohol and smoking. Therefore, those who are not ready for a potential abortion, doctors are always advised to choose either quality protection, or rejection of bad habits – just in case. Genetics confirm: moms who resort to a consultation with a cry of “I did not know that I was pregnant and drank antibiotics (alcohol),” is much more than you might think.
Among other things, Tatyana Ovsyannikova noticed that there is a seasonal dependence: the frozen pregnancy often happens in the summer, that is, in July-September, and diagnose it in September-November, respectively.
To be on time
In general, diagnosis in the situation of stopping pregnancy is a priority. Unfortunately, a premature pregnancy at an early stage may not have any effect. There are subjective criteria for termination of pregnancy (a sharp cessation of toxicosis, if it was, a reduction in breast size), but they are very easy to miss. Tatiana Botkina highlights two signs that should be alerted: any pain in the abdomen or the slightest bleeding. If in doubt, visit a doctor. There are three ways to diagnose a frozen pregnancy: to make a blood test for HCG (its content will be below the required level), ultrasound (shows no fetal heartbeat), and gynecological examination (the doctor determines the inconsistency of the size of the uterus during pregnancy).
If the diagnosis is confirmed, the most important is not to miss the time. In order for a woman not to develop a serious inflammation that will prevent her from getting pregnant in the future, immediately after confirming the diagnosis the woman should be hospitalized and make a sparing removal of the fetal egg. As explained by the doctor Tatiana Botkin, it is necessary to make a histological analysis (to diagnose the pathology of the fetus), and he, unfortunately, is not performed in all public hospitals. After scraping, the doctor prescribes a course of rehabilitation. If everything is done correctly, then the forecast is favorable.
Slowly and correctly
If the doctor finds the cause, for example, in an infection – you will have to pass all the tests and expel the infection, if there were hormonal disorders – to restore the cycle and the level of hormones. But it also happens that no reason was found. A woman who has experienced such a condition as a frozen pregnancy, treatment may not be required at all if all the test results are normal.
“Frozen pregnancy often happens due to a genetic error, which is unlikely to happen again,”
Tatyana Ovsyannikova reassured. She stressed that, according to medical statistics, even after three or four frozen pregnancies, 90% of women give birth to healthy babies.
However, before a new attempt to conceive, it is worthwhile to wait six months and a year to pass the correct preparation – with the analysis, consultation of the gynecologist-endocrinologist, andrologist and genetics. And yet – in no case do not despair and not confine yourself to the problem. Excessive stress does not contribute to health.